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The Anti-Muellerian Hormone (AMH) is a protein hormone or glycoprotein that plays a role in sex differentiation during embryonic development. Mutations in the AMH gene are responsible for disorders of sex differentiation. AMH is also produced by the ovaries. Determining the AMH concentration is also important for the evaluation of the ovarian reserve.
Anovulation is the absence of ovulation in the female cycle. This is referred to as an anovulatory cycle. Anovulatory cycles typically occur in PCO syndrome but also in hyperprolactinemia (excessive levels of prolactin in the blood). Disorders of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis also frequently lead to anovulatory cycles. Chronic anovulation is a common cause of female infertility.
Medical progress has made it possible to cultivate embryos up to the blastocyst stage. An embryo usually reaches the blastocyst stage within 5-6 days. The pregnancy rate is higher when an embryo is transferred in the blastocyst stage.
Endometriosis is a common, benign, often painful chronic disease in women in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus (endometrium) occurs outside the uterine cavity (ectopically).
Just as the normal lining of the uterus, the endometrial tissue changes during the menstrual cycle and can cause tissue bleeding, scarring and pain. Endometriosis usually occurs in the lower abdominal or pelvic cavity, for example on the uterus or the fallopian tubes. The ovaries are often also affected. When the muscles of the uterus are affected, this is called adenomyosis (adenomyosis uteri). An expansion on the vaginal wall and the intestine (colon) occurs. Endometriosis has rarely been described in the lungs, other internal organs and the brain. Endometriosis can be a cause of infertility in women. Since the causes of endometriosis are not yet fully understood, there is no possibility of causal treatment or prevention. Treatment of the disease includes surgical removal of the foci and hormonal inhibition of the cycle to reduce the likelihood of recurrence of endometriosis. Complete removal of a widely distributed diffuse endometriosis in the uterine wall (adenomyosis) can only be achieved by removing the uterus.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) is the most common method of artificial insemination. With its help, even men with severe fertility disorders have the chance to fulfil their desire to have children.
According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), infertility exists if pregnancy does not occur within one year despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse.
In vitro fertilisation
IVF (in vitro fertilisation) is a method of artificial insemination. In vitro fertilization in the test tube was successfully applied for the first time in 1978. Simply pour egg cells and sperm cells together is, however, not enough. IVF treatment consists of finely tuned steps.
OAT (oligoasthenoteratozoospermia) is a pathological change in the spermatozoa. Here, there is a low number of sperm (oligo), poor sperm movement (astheno) and the sperm are more often malformed (terato). It's often associated with male infertility.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is the examination of an embryo before it is transferred into the uterine cavity. With PGS, more correctly known as PGT-A, the number and distribution of chromosomes in the embryo are examined. PGT-M is a targeted search for modified genes that lead to severe hereditary diseases.
For preimplantation diagnostics, artificial insemination must be performed. After egg collection and fertilisation, the fertilised eggs are cultivated in the incubator. When the embryo begins to hatch (usually after 5-6 days), some cells are removed from the embryo's shell (trophectoderm biopsy). The shell later becomes the placenta. These cells are genetically examined. This can reduce the pregnancy rate per embryo transfer and the time until the birth of a child for women older than 37 years. Preimplantation genetic diagnostics is also used for couples whose children are threatened by life-threatening hereditary diseases (monogenic diseases).
Time lapse incubator
The time-lapse incubator can be used to assess the dynamics of embryo growth. Each individual embryo is photographed every five minutes up to the blastocyst stage (five to six days). The result is a time-lapse film that provides valuable information on embryonic development. Optimal development can increase the chance of pregnancy. Time-lapse incubation is also an important prerequisite for preimplantation diagnostics. When the embryo begins to hatch, some cells are removed from the embryo's shell (trophectoderm biopsy). The shell later becomes the placenta. These cells are genetically examined. This can reduce the pregnancy rate per embryo transfer and the time until the birth of a child for women older than 37 years. Preimplantation genetic diagnostics is also used for couples whose children are threatened by life-threatening hereditary diseases (monogenic diseases).